java.lang.invoke package provides low-level primitives for interacting
with the Java Virtual Machine.
As described in the Java Virtual Machine Specification, certain types in this package are given special treatment by the virtual machine:
- The classes
VarHandlecontain signature polymorphic methods which can be linked regardless of their type descriptor. Normally, method linkage requires exact matching of type descriptors.
- The JVM bytecode format supports immediate constants of
invokedynamicinstruction makes use of bootstrap
MethodHandleconstants to dynamically resolve
CallSiteobjects for custom method invocation behavior.
ldcinstruction makes use of bootstrap
MethodHandleconstants to dynamically resolve custom constant values.
invokedynamic instruction is originally in an unlinked state.
In this state, there is no target method for the instruction to invoke.
Before the JVM can execute an
the instruction must first be linked.
Linking is accomplished by calling a bootstrap method
which is given the static information content of the call,
and which must produce a
that gives the behavior of the invocation.
invokedynamic instruction statically specifies its own
bootstrap method as a constant pool reference.
The constant pool reference also specifies the invocation's name and method type descriptor,
invokestatic and the other invoke instructions.
equipped with bootstrap methods which perform their resolution.
Such a dynamic constant is originally in an unresolved state.
Before the JVM can use a dynamically-computed constant, it must first be resolved.
Dynamically-computed constant resolution is accomplished by calling a bootstrap method
which is given the static information content of the constant,
and which must produce a value of the constant's statically declared type.
Each dynamically-computed constant statically specifies its own
bootstrap method as a constant pool reference.
The constant pool reference also specifies the constant's name and field type descriptor,
getstatic and the other field reference instructions.
(Roughly speaking, a dynamically-computed constant is to a dynamically-computed call site
CONSTANT_Fieldref is to a
- the bootstrap method, a
MethodTypederived from type component of the
- static arguments, if any (note that static arguments can themselves be dynamically-computed constants)
The bootstrap method is then invoked, as if by
with the following arguments:
MethodHandles.Lookup, which is a lookup object on the caller class in which dynamically-computed constant or call site occurs
String, the name mentioned in the
Class, the resolved type descriptor of the
Class, the resolved type descriptor of the constant, if it is a dynamic constant
- the additional resolved static arguments, if any
For a dynamically-computed call site, the returned result must be a non-null reference to a
The type of the call site's target must be exactly equal to the type
derived from the invocation's type descriptor and passed to
the bootstrap method. If these conditions are not met, a
BootstrapMethodError is thrown.
On success the call site then becomes permanently linked to the
For a dynamically-computed constant, the first parameter of the bootstrap
method must be assignable to
MethodHandles.Lookup. If this condition
is not met, a
BootstrapMethodError is thrown.
On success the result of the bootstrap method is cached as the resolved
If an exception,
E say, occurs during execution of the bootstrap method, then
resolution fails and terminates abnormally.
E is rethrown if the type of
Error or a subclass, otherwise a
BootstrapMethodError that wraps
E is thrown.
If this happens, the same error will be thrown for all
subsequent attempts to execute the
invokedynamic instruction or load the
Timing of resolutionAn
invokedynamic instruction is linked just before its first execution.
A dynamically-computed constant is resolved just before the first time it is used
(by pushing it on the stack or linking it as a bootstrap method parameter).
The bootstrap method call implementing the linkage occurs within
a thread that is attempting a first execution or first use.
If there are several such threads, the bootstrap method may be
invoked in several threads concurrently.
Therefore, bootstrap methods which access global application
data must take the usual precautions against race conditions.
In any case, every
invokedynamic instruction is either
unlinked or linked to a unique
In an application which requires
invokedynamic instructions with individually
mutable behaviors, their bootstrap methods should produce distinct
CallSite objects, one for each linkage request.
Alternatively, an application can link a single
invokedynamic instructions, in which case
a change to the target method will become visible at each of
If several threads simultaneously execute a bootstrap method for a single dynamically-computed call site or constant, the JVM must choose one bootstrap method result and install it visibly to all threads. Any other bootstrap method calls are allowed to complete, but their results are ignored.
These rules do not enable the JVM to share call sites,
or to issue “causeless” bootstrap method calls.
invokedynamic instruction transitions at most once from unlinked to linked,
just before its first invocation.
There is no way to undo the effect of a completed bootstrap method call.
Types of bootstrap methodsFor a dynamically-computed call site, the bootstrap method is invoked with parameter types
MethodType, and the types
of any static arguments; the return type is
For a dynamically-computed constant, the bootstrap method is invoked with parameter types
Class, and the types of any
static arguments; the return type is the type represented by the
MethodHandle.invoke allows for
adaptations between the invoked method type and the bootstrap method handle's method type,
there is flexibility in the declaration of the bootstrap method.
For a dynamically-computed constant the first parameter type of the bootstrap method handle
must be assignable to
MethodHandles.Lookup, other than that constraint the same degree
of flexibility applies to bootstrap methods of dynamically-computed call sites and
Note: this constraint allows for the future possibility where the bootstrap method is
invoked with just the parameter types of static arguments, thereby supporting a wider
range of methods compatible with the static arguments (such as methods that don't declare
or require the lookup, name, and type meta-data parameters).
For example, for dynamically-computed call site, the first argument
Object instead of
MethodHandles.Lookup, and the return type
could also be
Object instead of
(Note that the types and number of the stacked arguments limit
the legal kinds of bootstrap methods to appropriately typed
static methods and constructors.)
If a pushed value is a primitive type, it may be converted to a reference by boxing conversion.
If the bootstrap method is a variable arity method (its modifier bit
0x0080 is set),
then some or all of the arguments specified here may be collected into a trailing array parameter.
(This is not a special rule, but rather a useful consequence of the interaction
CONSTANT_MethodHandle constants, the modifier bit for variable arity methods,
Given these rules, here are examples of legal bootstrap method declarations for
dynamically-computed call sites, given various numbers
N of extra arguments.
The first row (marked
*) will work for any number of extra arguments.
|Sample bootstrap method
CallSite bootstrap(Lookup caller, String name, MethodType type, Object arg)
The second-to-last example assumes that all extra arguments are of type
The other examples work with all types of extra arguments. Note that all
the examples except the second and third also work with dynamically-computed
constants if the return type is changed to be compatible with the
constant's declared type (such as
Object, which is always compatible).
Since dynamically-computed constants can be provided as static arguments to bootstrap
methods, there are no limitations on the types of bootstrap arguments.
However, arguments of type
cannot be directly supplied by
constant pool entries, since the
asType conversions do
not perform the necessary narrowing primitive conversions.
In the above examples, the return type is always
but that is not a necessary feature of bootstrap methods.
In the case of a dynamically-computed call site, the only requirement is that
the return type of the bootstrap method must be convertible
asType conversions) to
means the bootstrap method return type might be
In the case of a dynamically-resolved constant, the return type of the bootstrap
method must be convertible to the type of the constant, as
represented by its field type descriptor. For example, if the
dynamic constant has a field type descriptor of
char) then the bootstrap method return type could be
char, but not
CallSiteis a holder for a variable
MethodHandle, which is called its
target.Bootstrap methods for dynamically-computed constants.A
CallSitewhose target is permanent, and can never be changed.LambdaConversionExceptionMethods to facilitate the creation of simple "function objects" that implement one or more interfaces by delegation to a provided
MethodHandle, possibly after type adaptation and partial evaluation of arguments.A method handle is a typed, directly executable reference to an underlying method, constructor, field, or similar low-level operation, with optional transformations of arguments or return values.A symbolic reference obtained by cracking a direct method handle into its constituent symbolic parts.This class consists exclusively of static methods that help adapt method handles to other JVM types, such as interfaces.This class consists exclusively of static methods that operate on or return method handles.A lookup object is a factory for creating method handles, when the creation requires access checking.The set of class options that specify whether a hidden class created by
Lookup::defineHiddenClassmethod is dynamically added as a new member to the nest of a lookup class and/or whether a hidden class has a strong relationship with the class loader marked as its defining loader.A method type represents the arguments and return type accepted and returned by a method handle, or the arguments and return type passed and expected by a method handle caller.A
CallSitewhose target variable behaves like an ordinary field.Serialized form of a lambda expression.StringConcatException is thrown by
StringConcatFactorywhen linkage invariants are violated.Methods to facilitate the creation of String concatenation methods, that can be used to efficiently concatenate a known number of arguments of known types, possibly after type adaptation and partial evaluation of arguments.A
SwitchPointis an object which can publish state transitions to other threads.An entity that has a type descriptor.An entity that has a field type descriptor.A VarHandle is a dynamically strongly typed reference to a variable, or to a parametrically-defined family of variables, including static fields, non-static fields, array elements, or components of an off-heap data structure.The set of access modes that specify how a variable, referenced by a VarHandle, is accessed.A
CallSitewhose target acts like a volatile variable.Thrown to indicate that code has attempted to call a method handle via the wrong method type.